What do you know about electrical transformers?
You may think that the way of delivering electricity to homes and businesses is pretty standard all over the world, but its voltage and frequency varies between countries or every region within a single country.
Essentially, electrical transformers are used to change the voltage of electricity so that it is suitable for different appliances and locations.
Where are transformers used?
Electrical transformers are commonly installed at the top of power poles or in electrical appliances. Sometimes they can be as small as a fingernail and used in items like radios, or they can be large and heavy devices that are used in power grids. Power grids have very high voltage so that the electricity can be transported long distances, but it must be reduced to become suitable for our homes. The voltage is lowered down through the transformer and then put into local wires at a substation where it may be stepped down again and again so we can use it.
For example, the power from the grid may have a voltage as high as 765,000 volts, which can be lowered down to 7,200 volts through a substation. Then a local power pole transformer may drop the voltage further down to 220-240 volts before it is sent to your home. Larger appliances like water heaters may use this 220-240 volt electricity, but others like TVs and microwaves may need it even lower at 110-120 volts.
How do the electrical transformers work?
Transformers usually have two coils of wire in them, and some have more coils than the other.
When electricity in one of the windings transfers to a coil with fewer windings, the power steps down. And if the electricity in the coil with fewer turns in the wire is transferred to a coil with more turns, the voltage goes up. One coil is connected to an input circuit and the other is attached to the output circuit.
At the end of this article, we would like to mention also another type of transformers known as an autotransformer which is equipped with only one coil. Both circuits are connected to it at different points so that one circuit has more of the coil and more turns in the wire than the other. These transformers are often preferred because they are lighter, smaller and have better overload tolerance and voltage stability.